Politics of Plato and Aristotle To compare the political theories of two great philosophers of politics is to first examine each theory in depth. Plato is regarded by many experts as the first writer of political philosophy, and Aristotle is recognized as the first political scientist. These two men were great thinkers. They each had ideas of how to improve existing societies during their individual lifetimes. It is necessary to look at several areas of each theory to seek the difference in each
Racism and the Ku Klux Klan Since the early development of society in the United States, racism has always been a divisive issue faced by communities on a political level. Our country was built from the immigration of people from an international array of backgrounds. However, multitudes of white supremacists blame their personal as well as economic misfortunes on an abundance of ethnic groups. African-Americans, Jews and Catholics are only some of the of groups tormented by these white supremac
Government Spending & Budget As many Federal departments and agencies lurch into an era of running without funds, the leaders of both parties of Congress are spending less and less time searching for a compromise to balance the budget, and more and more time deciding how to use it to their advantage on the campaign trail. Meanwhile money is easily borrowed to pay for government overhead. In an attempt to change this, on June 29, Congress voted in favor of HConRes67 that called for a 7 year plan
Polarization in the Political System On Tuesday, November 14, 1995, in what has been perceived as the years biggest non-event, the federal government shut down all "non-essential" services due to what was, for all intents and purposes, a game of national "chicken" between the House Speaker and the President. And, at an estimated cost of 200 million dollars a day, this dubious battle of dueling egos did not come cheap (Bradsher, 1995, p.16). Why do politicians find it almost congenitally impossib
Farm Subsidies - A Necessary Evil? Subsidies are payments, economic concessions, or privileges given by the government to favor businesses or consumers. In the 1930s, subsidies were designed to favor agriculture. John Steinbeck expressed his dislike of the farm subsidy system of the United States in his book, The Grapes of Wrath. In that book, the government gave money to farms so that they would grow and sell a certain amount of crops. As a result, Steinbeck argued, many people starved unnecess
Machiavellian Politics in The Prince The Prince, written by Niccolo Machiavelli, is one of the first examinations of politics and science from a purely scientific and rational perspective. Machiavelli theorizes that the state is only created if the people cooperate and work to maintain it. The state is also one of man’s greatest endeavors, and the state takes precedence over everything else. The state should be one’s primary focus, and maintaining the sovereignty of the state one’s most vital co
Religion, and State Sovereignty The influence of religion on humankind can be traced back to the first records of history. Religion has served as a pillar of strength to some and binding chains to others. There are vast amounts of information and anthropological studies revealing the interaction of religion and humankind. However, for the purposes of this paper, the time periods of study will be broken up into three sections. Each section will give a general description of how religion affected
The U.S. - a Legitimate Democracy? In any system which claims to be democratic, a question of its legitimacy remains. A truly democratic political system has certain characteristics which prove its legitimacy with their existence. One essential characteristic of a legitimate democracy is that it allows people to freely make choices without government intervention. Another necessary characteristic which legitimates government is that every vote must count equally: one vote for every person. For t
Marxism and Economic Theory Human relationships have always been dynamic. Change and adaptability have gone hand in hand with the passage of time for human society. Systems have been developed to regulate, direct and control the resources of this society. The systems are referred to as governments and the resources as the populace or inhabitants and forces of production. A government must be dynamic in its nature reflecting the change in society. At times these systems have resisted the necessit
Fascism and its Political Ideas Fascism is a form of counter-revolutionary politics that first arose in the early part of the twentieth-century in Europe. It was a response to the rapid social upheaval, the devastation of World War I, and the Bolshevik Revolution. Fascism is a philosophy or a system of government the advocates or exercises a dictatorship of the extreme right, typically through the merging of state and business leadership, together with an ideology of aggressive nationalism. Cele
Keynesian Theory and the New Deal The crash of the stock market brought many hard times. Franklin D. Roosevelt\'s New Deal was a way to fix these times. John Stuart Mill and John Maynard Keynes were two economists whose economic theories greatly influenced and helped Franklin D. Roosevelt devise a plan to rescue the United States from the Great Depression it had fallen into. John Stuart Mill was a strong believer of expanded government, which the New Deal provided. John Maynard Keynes believed i
State of Texas vs. Johnson (1989) Justice Viveiros delivers the opinion of the court: Gregory Lee Johnson has been convicted of desecrating a flag in violation of Texas law; a conviction which questions ones guaranteed First Amendment, constitutional rights. Johnson\'s involvement in a political demonstration in Dallas, lead him to express his political concerns with the nations leaders and governmental policies. The State of Texas\' conviction of Johnson was carried out due to Johnson\'s conduc
Term Limits in U.S. Government Mark P. Petracca\'s idea that "government should be kept as near to the people as possible chiefly through frequent elections and rotation-in-office" is quite common in early republican thought and generally agreed upon by the America\'s revolutionary thinkers. Although the debate over limiting legislative terms dates back to the beginnings of political science, it was not until the 1990\'s that the doctrine began to be taken seriously when voters started to approv
Monetary and Fiscal Policy The Monetary and Fiscal Policies, although controlled by two different organizations, are the ways that our economy is kept under control. Both policies have their strengths and weaknesses, some situations favoring use of both policies, but most of the time, only one is necessary. The monetary policy is the act of regulating the money supply by the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, currently headed by Alan Greenspan. One of the main responsibilities of the Federal Re
Legality of Same-Sex Marriages The proposed legalization of same-sex marriage is one of the most significant issues in contemporary American family law. Presently, it is one of the most vigorously advocated reforms discussed in law reviews, one of the most explosive political questions facing lawmakers, and one of the most provocative issues emerging before American courts. If same-sex marriage is legalized, it could be one of the most revolutionary policy decisions in the history of American fa
Abortion: Life or Death, Who chooses? During the past quarter century, abortion has joined race and war as one of the most debatable subject of controversy in the United States. It discusses human interaction where ethics, emotions and law come together. Abortion poses a moral, social and medical dilemma that faces many individuals to create a emotional and violent atmosphere. There are many points of view toward abortion but the only two fine distinctions are "pro-choice" and "pro-life". A pro-
Comparative Politics Comparative Politics, typically defined as the study of the internal politics of nations other than our own, is a diverse and complex field. There is no one central tendency or approach which dominates this area of inquiry within political science: various theories, concepts, issues and methodologies are evident in the field. While it is recognized that no simple classification can be made of the literature, we are encouraged to be aware of contrasting approaches, and to eng
Economic Reasons for American Independence Eleven years before America had declared it\'s independence there was 1,450,000 white and 400,000 Negro subjects of the crown. The colonies extended from the Atlantic to the Appalachian barrier. The life in these thirteen colonies was primarily rural, the economy based on agriculture, most were descended from the English, and politics were only the concern of land owners. Throughout these prosperous colonies, only a small portion of the population were
Theodore Roosevelt Outline Thesis: Theodore Roosevelt\'s political presence altered the course of the United States, transforming it into a superpower fully ready to handle the challenges of any opposition, and changed the role of the president and executive branch of US government, making it a force to be reckoned with. I. Introduction II. Before Roosevelt A. Post-Reconstructionist Views B. The Industrial Revolution C. The Gilded Age 1. Railroads 2. Robber Barons 3. Immigration 4. Standard Ques
Growth of NYS Business April 17, 1996 For a number of reasons, business enterprise in New York grew by leaps and bounds between 1825 and 1860. New York\'s growth between the years 1825 and 1860 can be attributed to a number of factors. These include but cannot be limited to the construction of the Erie Canal, the invention of the telegraph, the developed of the railroads, the establishment of Wall Street and banking, the textile, shipping, agriculture and newpaper industries, the development of
Monopolies - A Case Study John Velimirovic Monopolization And Its Implication On A World Scale The monopolization of the capitalist system is at the base, a degradation, not only of the "free-competition" of the capitalistic (bourgeoises) socio-economic order, it is also, the degradation of the working class and, in fact, the respective systems imminent demise. During the Cold War competition between potential monopolist nations, USA, France, Germany, England and Canada was highly minimized and
Symbols of Freedom and the Values They Represent American symbols are almost as complicated and interpretive as the American politics they serve. In my first grade class, before the boy scouts were kicked out of meeting in public schools, they made us do the Pledge of Allegiance. This frightened me; being put into a class where these lunatic people talked to a piece of cloth hanging on the wall, and in my fear they sent me back to kindergarten. When I reached the first grade for the second time
Politics Frank Sinatra once said, "You\'re riding high in April, shot down in May. But I know I\'m gonna change that tune, when I\'m back on top, back on top in June." Does the epitome of individualism lie in the lyrics of a Las Vegas singer? Is this really how far we must look to find the principles on which this country was created? Unfortunately, this is the case. Social programs implemented by the Federal Government have produced a nation of sniveling crybabies. The concept of rugged individ
Virtu and Fortuna Virtu and Fortuna Under close scrutiny, The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli is seen to be a mind-baffling construct of many levels of meaning, and, many might say, enigmatically so. It is hard to determine where Machiavelli is writing in earnest and where in sarcasm or self-condemnation. As John Plamenatz says, the perverse Machiavelli "likes to make himself out worse than he is. He likes at times to shock his contemporaries..." No doubt he succeeds. The important message here, t
Southern Voting Behavior Southern Voting behavior since the 1960’s Voters in many areas of the U.S. are apt to vote differently as a whole from election to election. The nation has also had a decreased turnout rate for the presidential and local elections. The South has typically not followed these patterns that the rest of has seemed to be following. The Southern whites of the U.S. have typically followed and voted for the more conservative candidate and party. Where as the Southern blacks have
Early History of Judaism It has been argued that Judaism can be seen not only as a single religion, but as a group of similar religions. It has also been pointed-out that through all the trials and tribulations that Judaism has suffered through, that there have been common themes that have proven omni-pervasive. Any institution with roots as ancient and varied as the religion of the Jews is bound to have a few variations, especially when most of its history takes place in the political and theo
Entertainment and Education Both entertainment and education have been integrals parts of the human experience since the beginnings of time. Many scholars insist that the two institutions often serve jointly, with entertainers and entertainment serving as a main source of education. There is little argument, then, that in addition to generally appealing to the masses, entertainers have regularly fulfilled the role of a teacher to typically unsuspecting audiences. Entertainers have served as educ
Hume "I was from the beginning scandalised, I must own, with this resemblance between the Deity and human creatures." --Philo David Hume wrote much about the subject of religion, much of it negative. In this paper we shall attempt to follow Hume\'s arguments against Deism as Someone knowable from the wake He allegedly makes as He passes. This kind of Deism he lays to rest. Then, digging deeper, we shall try our hand at a critique of his critique of religion, of resurrecting a natural belief in G
KARMA The doctrine of Karma is a spiritual doctrine based on the theory of cause and effect. Although Karma does not exactly fit the definition of supernatural phenomenon it is a spiritual doctrine based on the philosophy that God is not responsible for the happiness or failure of an individual, rather, we as individuals are solely responsible for the consequences of our own behavior. The concept of Karma has two major interpretations; the most common approaches are to the idea of reincarnation,
Cotton’s Impact on the United States Before the Civil War With the end of the War of 1812, few people in the United States envisioned a civil war in the future. With a developing Western section of the country, the future looked bright for a stable growing economy based on extraction of resources (agriculture, timber, and various resources in the ground). With the shipping resources of New England and financial centers in the North, agriculture and extraction of resources seemed to be the founda
Title of Paper : fricke collection Grade Received on Report : B The Fricke Collection Lady Meux v. Frances Duncombe Donated by the Fricke family is a collection housed on fifth avenue, ranging from sculptures and paintings, to furniture of renowned artists. Paintings in particular, such as, Whistler\'s, Lady Meux and Gainsborough\'s, Frances Duncombe, are classic examples of subtle yet provocative feminist portrayals. The initial impact of these illustrations is a combination of the surface imag
I see myself as a quite liberal person on political, social, and economic issues. I believe the public has some duties to the government such as pay taxes. In turn, the government should fund programs to help the people who need assistance. Unfortunately, much of the American public has lost its trust in the federal government because of corruption and special interest groups. However, now we are solving many of these problems, and hopefully America will again trust Washington. Once the public p
Human Rights On December tenth 1948 in the Palis de Chaillot in Paris, the United Nation\'s General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The document is made up of thirty articles which deal with a series of basic human rights and duties. It follows the premise that " the declaration is a common standard of achievement for all peoples and nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teach
The Modern KKK Although the modern Ku Klux Klan, or KKK, is not the same group that terrorized African - Americans in the late 1800s and early 1900s, they still have the same basic goals and ideas. There are many local and regional KKK groups such as the Oregon Knights of the Ku Klux Klan and the New Order Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan is the national and largest organization, but the only one seeking a political agenda. They are the group that claims they are kee
Alcoholics Anonymous Defining "Alcoholics Anonymous" Following is the definition of A.A. appearing in the Fellowship’s basic literature and cited frequently at meetings of A.A. groups: Alcoholics Anonymous is a fellowship of men and women who share their experience, strength, and hope with each other that they may solve their common problem and help others to recover from alcoholism. The only requirement for membership is a desire to stop drinking. There are no dues of fees for A.A. membership;
"Democracy in America" Alexis De Tocquevilleís Democracy in America delves deep into how the American States and the federal government would grow politically and socially under the umbrella of democracy. He sees the United States as a unique entity because of how and why it started as well as its geographical location. De Tocqueville explains that the foundations of the democratic process in America are completely different from anywhere else on the globe. The land was virginal and the colonies
How Vulnerable Are You to Mass Hysteria? We often think of ourselves as being too logical of level-headed to be turned around by some bizarre social reality. We never bought a hoola hoop. We know Elvis is truly dead. We all are vulnerable to some extent and we all have our Achilles’ heels. If you understand how these phenomena of heard psychology work, you’ll be better prepared to deal with them. And, as an options trader, you must be able to see reality for what it is in order to profitably tra
Discrimination The struggle for social and economic equality of Black people in America has been long and slow. It is sometimes amazing that any progress has been made in the racial equality arena at all; every tentative step forward seems to be diluted by losses elsewhere. For every "Stacey Koons" that is convicted, there seems to be a Texaco executive waiting to send Blacks back to the past. Throughout the struggle for equal rights, there have been courageous Black leaders at the forefront of
Analysis of the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I In the peace settlement Germany was forced to accept sole responsibility for causing World War I. This was a totally justifiable demand on the part of the victorious powers. The Treaty of Versailles was enacted into history in June 1919 with Germany forced to accept sole responsibility for causing World War I. Since then there has been considerable debate concerning the war but even today historians still cannot fully agree upon the cau
Social, Economical, and Political Effects of World War I "Everywhere in the world was heard the sound of things breaking." Advanced European societies could not support long wars or so many thought prior to World War I. They were right in a way. The societies could not support a long war unchanged. The First World War left no aspect of European civilization untouched as pre-war governments were transformed to fight total war. The war metamorphed Europe socially, politicaly, economically, and in