This essay A 'Moment of Silence' in Schools has a total of 448 words and 3 pages.
A \'Moment of Silence\' in Schools
In 1962 the Supreme Court decided that public schools did not
have the power to authorize school prayer. This decision made public
school in the U.S. more atheistic than many European nations. For
example, crosses still hang on the classroom walls in Poland, and the
Ten Commandments are displayed in Hungary. There are prayers held at
the beginning of legislative and judicial sessions and every President
has mentioned a divine power in his inaugural speech. In keeping with
a spirit of religious freedom as stated in the First Amendment, there
is no reason why students should not be allowed to have a moment of
silence during the school day when they can pray or do as they choose.
The case Engel v. Vitale in 1962 decided that school prayer is
unconstitutional. With this case, it was pointed out that the students
were to "voluntarily" recite the following prayer: "Almighty God, we
acknowledge our dependence upon Thee, and we beg Thy blessings upon
us, our parents, our teachers, and our country." The court ruled that
this rule was unconstitutional according to the First Amendment\'s
"establishment clause," which states "Congress shall make no law
respecting an establishment of religion." In response to the Engel v.
Vitale case some schools adopted a "moment of silence."
In 1963, another case was brought before the court dealing
with school prayer, Abington School District v. Schempp. The Schempp
family challenged a law in Pennsylvania requiring the students to say
ten verses of the Bible before school. These readings from the Bible
were declared unconstitutional. Members of the board felt reading the
Bible would give the children more moral values. The Schempp family
strongly disagreed. Members of Congress attempted to find a
compromise. From this effort came the adoption of the moment of
silence, which is guaranteed by the First Amendment\'s "Free Exercise"
Six states now permit silent moments -- Georgia, Virginia,
Maryland, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Alabama. Silent prayer was ruled
constitutional in 1985 as long as it had no religious intent or
purpose. (Newsweek, October 3, 1994)
Prayer has been banned in schools for thirty-three years. The
moment of silence has been ruled constitutional, however. Every
student fills a moment of silence in a different way: through song, a
prayer, or a memory.
Newsweek, October 3, 1994, vol. 124.
U.S. News and World Report, December 5, 1995 Vol. 117, No. 22, pg.
The Case of Engel v. Vitale 370 U.S. 421 1962, p. 118-119.
Abington School District v. Schempp 374 U.S. 203; 83 S. Ct. 1560; 10
L. Ed. 2d 844 1963, pg. 529-530.
Topics Related to A 'Moment of Silence' in Schools
Prayer, Human communication, Education, Religion, School prayer, Abington School District v. Schempp, Establishment Clause, Moment of silence, Engel v. Vitale, Schempp, School Prayer Amendment, First Amendment to the United States Constitution
Essays Related to A 'Moment of Silence' in Schools
Maya AngelouMaya Angelou A poet, an author, a play-write, an actress, a mother, a civil-rights activists, historian and most important a survivor. Perhaps Maya Angelou, award winning author of many books is one of the most influential African Americans in American history. I believe that she rates at the top of the list of American authors, with Hemingway, Hawthorne, and Voight. I believe through my research and reading of Maya Angelou that she should be among the members of The American Authors Hall of Fam
All-American BoyAll-American Boy By: Eng. 102 Section 5541 Crapsi Combination Outline Introduction Revue of Sources Body: Thesis: Ronald Dutch Reagan is an elite kind of person that believed in perseverance and hard work and doing what had to be done, even if it meant a low approval rating. I. From Dutch to Ronald II. Hollywood to Governor III. Reaganomics Response Conclusion Works Cited Introduction Somewhere at sometime a philosopher once said, The world is divided into two kinds of people: those who are s
General Purpose- to persuadeGeneral Purpose- to persuade Specific Idea- My audience will be persuaded to think that child abuse is a serious problem. Central Idea- I plan to talk about the alarming numbers of child abuse, the causes, and the signs and symptoms, and some solutions we can use. Introduction I. As you hear this, one little girl is crying out in pain, one little boy is begging not to be touched there anymore. II. I am a strong opponent of child abuse. I believe that it is wrong and I have read and did research
The PretenderThe Pretender The Pretender by Jackson Browne tells a story of a man who has dreams of money and love. Pretenders dream of the American Dream, money, and love, but do not possess these things. The Pretender in the song, typifies the middle-aged American. All want money and love, but few have them. The Pretender reveals a message of a man who had strong dreams, only to have them fade into the harsh reality of life. First, the Pretender dreams of possessing legal tender and living the Americ
Introduction to the Visual ArtsIntroduction to the Visual Arts Throughout history art has played an intricate role in society\'s perception of life. Art is used as form of expressionism be it physical or emotional, religious or the mockery of religion. The birth of new artistic eras were due to the technological advancements of the world. Below are a few examples of works of art that from different era in our humanity. Francisco de Stefano\'s, named Pesellino during the renaissance, A Miracle of Saint Silvester is a scene rep
TartuffeTartuffe by Moličre I was in the audience at the proformance of Tartuffe the first night it played at Prairie High School. I really liked Tartuffe, i felt that the play was pretty funny, and i liked how it started off by letting the audience know Tartuffe is a fraud. I thought it was a very good production. In Tartuffe we get pretty much a personal view into Orgons’s home, all of the play takes place here. In Act I, scene 4, Tartuffe, coming into church everyday and drawing attention with his lo
An, who would give all of his followers somethingan, who would give all of his followers something they had never had before; faith, and the ability to see others, love others, and talk to others. The basic lines of Catholic Mariology (theology of Mary) are now to talked about and to debated beyond dispute, written as they are in the Scriptures, in the liturgy, in prayer, poetry, song and art, in the writings of saints and theologians and in the teaching of popes and councils. Mary holds a secure place as the mother of Jesus, the greatest of a
Born in 1887, Padre Pio is not yet canonized. FranBorn in 1887, Padre Pio is not yet canonized. Francesco, named in honor of St. Francis of Assisi, was one of eight children of Grazio and Maria Forgione. Francesco was very devout even as a child, and at an early age felt drawn to the priesthood. He became a Capuchin novice at the age of sixteen and received the “habit” in 1902. Francesco was ordained to the priesthood in 1910 after seven years of study and became known as Padre Pio. On September 20, 1918, Padre Pio was kneeling in front of a la
The Crucible, by Arthur Miller, is a fact-based stThe Crucible, by Arthur Miller, is a fact-based story about a town called Salem and it\'s unjust people. Salem, was a town ruled and governed by religion. Things such as games, newspapers, or anything alien to their small town were considered evil. Though a strict, religion-based town might sound appealing to some, the town had many problems. One such problem was the witch trials that took place in Judge Hathorne\'s Court. In these trials little girls would sit in the front and the elder people
A Comparison and Contrast of Lord of the Flies and A Comparison and Contrast of Lord of the Flies and Heart of Darkness Achebe uses positive tone in his description of the African jungle; whereas, Conrad makes use of negative connotations. Their portrayals of the jungle reflect their attitudes toward their subject; Achebe sees it as a hospitable home whereas Conrad sees a tragic trap. Conrad utilizes words with negative connotations, such as Arioted, Amob, Avengeful, and Agloom to portray the jungle as an inauspicious place. He makes use of dic
Young Goodman Brown Young Goodman Brown Young Goodman Brown, by Nathaniel Hawthorne, is a story that is thick with allegory. Young Goodman Brown is a moral story which is told through the perversion of a religious leader. In Young Goodman Brown, Goodman Brown is a Puritan minister who lets his excessive pride in himself interfere with his relations with the community after he meets with the devil, and causes him to live the life of an exile in his own community. Young Goodman Brown begins when Faith, Brown
Monasticism in the Middle AgesMonasticism in the Middle Ages During the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, the monasteries served as one of the great civilizing forces by being the centers of education, preservers of learning, and hubs of economic development. Western monasticism was shaped by Saint Benedict of Nursia, who in 529, established a monastery in southern Italy. He created a workable model for running a monastery that was used by most western monastic orders of the Early Middle Ages. To the three vows of obedience,
Style of J. D. SalingerStyle of J. D. Salinger Many critics consider J.D. Salinger a very controversial writer, for the subject matters that he writes.. J.D. Salinger’s works were generally written during two time periods. The first time period was during World War II, and the second time period was during the 1960’s. Critics feel that the works during the 1960 time period were very inappropriate, because of the problems for which he wrote. The main characters were generally misfits of society. In most of his works, h
Becoming a KnightBecoming a Knight During the middle ages, in order to become a knight one had to go through many years of training. A knight-to-be spent at least fourteen years of his life learning the proper conduct and etiquette of knighthood. Once the years of training were completed, often an elaborate ceremony took place when the gentleman was knighted. Once knighted, the man had to live by the code of chivalry. This code had the basic guidelines of a knight\'s behavior. This code was so respected that abi
Events Leading up to the American RevolutionEvents Leading up to the American Revolution With the research that I have done, I have come up with the following information on the events leading to the American Revolution. After the French-Indian War the British Government decided to reap greater benefits from the colonies. The colonies were pressed with greater taxes without any representation in Britain. This eventually lead to the Boston Tea Party. In retaliation the British passed what are now considered the Intolerable (or Coercive Act
Title of Paper : The CrucibleTitle of Paper : The Crucible Grade Received on Report : 85% The deterioration of Salem\'s social structure precipitated the murders of many innocent people. Arthur Miller\'s depiction of the Salem witch trials, The Crucible, deals with a community that starts out looking like it is tightly knit and church loving. It turns out that once Tituba starts pointing her finger at the witches, the community starts pointing their fingers at each other. Hysteria and hidden agendas break down the social st
William ShakespeareWilliam Shakespeare One may find it ridiculous to contrast between Shakespeare and existentialism in its 20th century form, however one must keep in mind, that existentialism does not appear as a single philosophical system. It is more an attitude of life, a general vision - existentialist Jean-Paul Sartre is known to have stated that existentialism was never invented, it has always existed as the ultimate foundation. Upon that light, why not seek the foundations from the work of the forefather
A 'Moment of Silence' in SchoolsA \'Moment of Silence\' in Schools In 1962 the Supreme Court decided that public schools did not have the power to authorize school prayer. This decision made public school in the U.S. more atheistic than many European nations. For example, crosses still hang on the classroom walls in Poland, and the Ten Commandments are displayed in Hungary. There are prayers held at the beginning of legislative and judicial sessions and every President has mentioned a divine power in his inaugural speech. In k
The UnIslamic Nation of IslamThe UnIslamic Nation of Islam The mention of the “Nation of Islam” will undoubtedly cause an immense number of responses in any situation. To some, this organization symbolizes blatant racism. To others, it is seen as a savior of the black community. Regardless of one’s opinion of the Nation, though, the differences between Al-Islam(traditional Islam) and the beliefs of the Nation cannot be denied. The Nation of Islam is a social movement. This social movement is undoubtedly rooted in religion,
Torah ScriptureTorah Scripture Introduction to the Torah Scripture Introduction to Scriptures in general and Hebrew Scriptures in particular The Torah A. Introduction to the Torah B. Begin exploring the Torah\'s themes and content The Torah in the New Testament and the Book of Common Prayer Part I Introduction Scripture In General Doctrine of Inspiration The Bible is: A single Divine revelation, with two Testaments, better called covenants or agreements between God and his people. Three necessary theological c
Verbal Aggression Verbal Aggression Verbal aggression is message behavior which attacks a person\'s self-concept in order to deliver psychological pain.(Infante, 1995) Studies of verbal aggression have focused primarily on children and adolescents in educational and social settings. Very few studies were found to examine verbal aggression in adults in the workplace.(Ebbesen, Duncan, Konecni, 1974) The consequences of verbal aggression in the workplace can lead to social isolation, job related stress, health rela
Reform Judaism in the 19th CenturyReform Judaism in the 19th Century The most extreme precursor to the Reform movement was a man by the name of Samuel Holdheim. He was born in 1806 in Kempo in the province of Posen. At a young age he studied at a yeshiva and received a Talmudic education. He began to study German and secular subjects after his marriage to a woman with a modern education. After their divorce several years later, he began studying at the University of Prague and Berlin and received a doctorate from the University
The Role of Women in the ChurchThe Role of Women in the Church With the advent of the feminist movement, the role of women in all parts of society has come under increasing scrutiny. One area of recent controversy is the role of women in the Christian Church. Some churches whose traditions and practices are less rigidly tied to Biblical doctrines have begun placing women in leadership positions such as pastor or teacher. Other churches which interpret the Bible more literally have been slow to adopt such changes. Much of the
Quick LookQuick Look Buddha taught that in order to live a life that is free from pain and suffering people must eliminate any attachments to worldly goods. Only then will they gain a kind of peace and happiness. They must rid themselves of greed, hatred, and ignorance. They strive to cultivate four attitudes, loving-kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy, and equanimity. The basic moral code prohibits killing, stealing, harmful language, sexual misbehavior, and the use of intoxicants. Morality, wisdom, an
Religions Spread Through ConquestReligions Spread Through Conquest When studying history, both in a professional and academic sense, we try to make connections between civilizations and time periods. Historians have attempted to discover universal conezts of human nature, a bond that forms from continent to continent, human being to human being. Is there a conezt quality that all peoples posses, and is reflected in all civilizations? Indeed, it is extremely difficult to make generalizations about centuries of modern history. To
Entertainment and EducationEntertainment and Education Both entertainment and education have been integrals parts of the human experience since the beginnings of time. Many scholars insist that the two institutions often serve jointly, with entertainers and entertainment serving as a main source of education. There is little argument, then, that in addition to generally appealing to the masses, entertainers have regularly fulfilled the role of a teacher to typically unsuspecting audiences. Entertainers have served as educ
The Modern KKK The Modern KKK Although the modern Ku Klux Klan, or KKK, is not the same group that terrorized African - Americans in the late 1800s and early 1900s, they still have the same basic goals and ideas. There are many local and regional KKK groups such as the Oregon Knights of the Ku Klux Klan and the New Order Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan is the national and largest organization, but the only one seeking a political agenda. They are the group that claims they are kee
Alcoholics AnonymousAlcoholics Anonymous Defining Alcoholics Anonymous Following is the definition of A.A. appearing in the Fellowship’s basic literature and cited frequently at meetings of A.A. groups: Alcoholics Anonymous is a fellowship of men and women who share their experience, strength, and hope with each other that they may solve their common problem and help others to recover from alcoholism. The only requirement for membership is a desire to stop drinking. There are no dues of fees for A.A. membership;
AlcoholismAlcoholism Alcoholism is a disease of epidemic proportions, affecting 9.3 to 10 million Americans, and many professionals believe the figures are closer to 20 million (Weddle and Wishon). Alcoholism is a physiological or physiological dependence on alcohol characterized by the alcoholic’s inability to control the start or termination of his drinking(Encyclopedia Britannica 210). It consists of frequent and recurring consumption of alcohol to an extent that causes continued harm to the drinker
PyramidsPyramids The Egyptians believed that their kings were gods. Even after they had died, the rulers continued to affect daily life through their supernatural powers. In his new life in the underworld, the king would need everything he needed while alive, and he needed his home to last for eternity. While alive, Egyptian kings lived in palace of mud-brick, wore linen roves, and slept in wooden beds. In their gentle climate, more substantial comforts were not needed. But eternity last a whole lot lon
Dylan and the Sad Eyed Lady of the LowlandDylan and the Sad Eyed Lady of the Lowland Regarding significant musical movements in history, more specifically the twenty first century, few were more important than the folk revolution that took shape in the mid-nineteen hundreds. One of the leaders of this revolution was Robert Allen Zimmerman, known by his popular assumed name, Bob Dylan. Born in 1941 in Minnesota, Dylan grew up the grandchild of Jewish-Russian immigrants and had a surprisingly unexceptional childhood. His interest in music
Plains IndiansPlains Indians For many tribes of Plains Indians whose bison-hunting culture flourished during the 18th and 19th centuries, the sun dance was the major communal religious ceremony . . . the rite celebrates renewal - the spiritual rebirth of participants and their relatives as well as the regeneration of the living earth with all its components . . . The ritual, involving sacrifice and supplication to insure harmony between all living beings, continues to be practiced by many contemporary native
The Realistic HeroThe Realistic Hero Tom Sawyer, the main character of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, written by Mark Twain, is an average boy who is bored with his civilized life and escapes these constraints by pulling pranks, and pulling other mischievous things. The character of Tom, in the most part, is presented as a realistic and convincing boy. He is kind and loving, but also cruel, stupid, and hypocritical of others at times, as well as, he shows maturation throught the story. The story of Tom Sawyer,as w
Since the time of Epicurus to the present, many peGod Since the time of Epicurus to the present, many people have had certain beliefs in myths and in the Gods. Epicurus presents his philosophy pertaining to these convictions. In his reasoning, he derives a definition of mythology and of the Gods contradicting to much of popular thought. Many people depend on mythology when they need an explanation for a phenomenon. Epicurus rationalizes that mythology is unchangeable and dogmatic, for “when one accepts one theory and rejects another which is eq
The Sin of Nadab & AbihuThe Sin of Nadab & Abihu Verse: (Lev. 10:1) And Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron took either of them his censer, and put fire therin, and put incense thereon, and offered strange fire before the Lord, which he commanded them not. (King James) The Sin of Nadab & Abihu: An Exegesis There is no clear consensus as to what sin Nadab and Abihu committed as detailed in verse 10:1 of the book Leviticus, in the Hebrew bible. Some commentators like to take into consideration material previously mentione