Fascism and its Political Ideas

Fascism is a form of counter-revolutionary politics that first
arose in the early part of the twentieth-century in Europe. It was a
response to the rapid social upheaval, the devastation of World War I,
and the Bolshevik Revolution. Fascism is a philosophy or a system of
government the advocates or exercises a dictatorship of the extreme
right, typically through the merging of state and business leadership,
together with an ideology of aggressive nationalism. Celebrating the
nation or the race as an organic community surpassing all other
loyalties. This right-wing philosophy will even advocate violent
action to maintain this loyalty which is held in such high regards.
Fascism approaches politics in two central areas, populist and
elitist. Populist in that it seeks to activate "the people" as a whole
against perceived oppressors or enemies and to create a nation of
unity. The elitist approach treats as putting the people’s will on one
select group, or most often one supreme leader called El Duce, from
whom all power proceeds downward. The two most recognized names that
go along with Fascism are Italy’s Benito Mussolini and Germany’s Adolf
Hitler.
The philosophy of Fascism can be traced to the philosophers
who argue that the will is prior to and superior to the intellect or
reason. George Sorel, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Georg Hegal are main
philosophers who’s beliefs and ideologies greatly influenced the
shaping of Fascist theory. Sorel (1847-1922) was a French social
philosopher who had a major influence on Mussolini. Sorel believed
that societies naturally became decadent and disorganized. This decay
could only be slowed by the leadership of idealists who were willing
to use violence to obtain power. Nietzsche (1844-1900) theorized that
there were two moral codes: the ruling class ( master morality) and
the oppressed class (slave morality). Nietzsche believed the ancient
empires were developed from the master majority and the religious
ideas and views grew out the slave majority. The idea of the "overman"
or superman which symbolized man at his most creative and highest
intellectual capacity was brought about by Nietzsche as well. Hegal
believed people should sacrifice for the community. He thought war was
also necessary to unify the state, with peace bring nothing but a weak
society. Hegal also sustained that laws should be made by the
corporate organization of the state.
Fascism values human nature in a group for the benefit of the
community. The group as a whole is called the human will, which is
ruled by a select group or one leader, with the power being passed
down from top to bottom. Fascism seeks to organize an organization led
mass movement in an effort to capture the state power. When the power
is in the firm grip of the ruler, or IL Duce, the government will be
used to control the population and everything in it so the community
will be benefited.
Fascism’s ideal government would be fashioned around the good
of the community or nation. Everyone would work for the benefit of the
nation and that is all. Regularly this would take place with the
merging of the state and business leadership, with concern only of the
nation. In this the nation will also take care of its members if the
need should arise. This could be money ,shelter, food, or any other
need that might come about.
The ideology of Fascism has been identified with
totalitarianism, state terror, fanaticism, arranged violence, and
blind obedience. Adolf Hitler established his own personal ideology,
Mein Kampf, which means My Struggle. The book was written while Hitler
was in prison and not yet in power. Mussolini fashioned his ideology
after he took control of Italy. Despite their two different angles on
the use of Fascism Hitler and Mussolini both worked similarly on how
they established their principles in the same basic manner. Their
principles came from basic responses to various issues the leaders
faced.
Fascism is an authoritarian political movement that developed
in Italy and other European countries after 1919 as a reaction against
the profound political and social changes brought about from
inflation, and declining social, economic, and political conditions.
Italy, which was ready for a new political aspect, was the birthplace
of fascist ideology. Benito Mussolini was the man who brought this
ideology to Italy. Mussolini had been looking for the perfect
opportunity to take