Gettysburg

This most famous and most important Civil War Battle occurred over three hot summer days, July 1 to July 3, 1863,
around the small market town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. It began as a skirmish but by the time it ended, it
involved 160,00 Americans.

Before the battle, major cities in the North such as Philadelphia, Baltimore and even Washington itself, were under
threat of attack from General Robert E. Lee’s Confederate Army of Northern Virginia which had crossed the
Potomac River and marched into Pennsylvania.

the Union Army of the Potomac under its new and untried commander, General George G. Meade, marched to
intercept Lee.

On Tuesday morning, June 30, an infantry brigade of Confederate soldiers searching for shoes headed toward
Gettysburg (population about 2,400). The Confederate commander looked through his field glasses and spotted a
long column of Federal cavalry heading toward the town. He withdrew his brigade and informed his superior, Hen.
Henry Heth, who in turn told his superior, A.P. Hill, he would go back the following morning and “get those shoes”.

This kinda of tells you how much of an advantage the North had over the South. Desperate bare-footed men risked
their lives for shoes.

Wednesday, July 1, two divisions of Confederates headed back to Gettysburg. They ran into Federal cavalry west of
the town at Willoughby Run (I have Willoughby Run on my model here) and the skirmish began. Events quickly
escalated. Lee rushed 25,000 men to the scene while the Union had less than 20,000.

After much fierce fighting and heavy casualties on both sides, the Federals were pushed back through the town of
Gettysburg and regrouped south of the town along the high ground near the cemetery (which is here on my map).
Lee ordered Confederate General R.S. Ewell to seize the high ground from the battle tired Federals . Gen. Ewell
hesitated to attack thereby giving the Union troops a chance to dig in along Cemetery Ridge and bring in
reinforcements with artillery. By the time Lee realized Ewell had not attacked, it was too late to attempt the attack.

Meade arrived at the area and thought it was an ideal place to do battle with the Rebel army. He expected a massive
number of Union soldiers totaling up to 100,000to arrive and strengthen his defensive position.

Confederate General James Lonstreet saw the Union position as nearly impenetrable and told Lee it should be left
alone. He argued that the Confederate Army should instead move east between the Union Army and Washington and
build a defensive position thus forcing the Federals to attack them instead. But Lee believed his army was invincible
and he also didn’t have his cavalry which served as his eyes and ears. With his cavalry he could track the Unions
troop movements. Cavalry leader Jev Stuart had gone off with his troops to harass the Federals leaving Lee with a
disadvantage.

Lee decided to attack the Union Army’s defensive position at the southern end of Cemetery Ridge which he thought
was less defended.

Around 10 a.m. the next morning, Thursday, July 2, Gen. Lonstreet was ordered by Lee to attack. but Lonstreet was
quite slow in getting his troops into position and didn’t even attack them until 4 p.m. that afternoon. This gave the
Union Army more time to strengthen their position.

When Longstreet attacked, some of the most bitter fighting of the Civil War erupted at places now part of American
military folklore such as Little Round Top, Devil’s Den, the Wheat Field and the Peach Orchard (which can all be
seen on my model). Longstreet took the Peach Orchard but was driven back at Little Round Top.

About 6:30 p.m. Gen. Ewell attacked the Union Line from the north and east at Cemetery Hill and Culp’s Hill (which
can be seen on my model also). The attack lasted into darkness but was finally decided unsuccessful at Cemetery
Hill, although Rebels seized some trenches on Culp’s Hill.

By about 10:30 p.m., the day’s fighting came to and end. The Federals had lost some ground during the Rebel
onslaught but still held the strong defensive position along Cemetery Ridge. Both sides regrouped and counted their
causalities.

Generals from each side gathered in war councils to plan for the coming day. Union commander Meade decided his
army would remain in place and wait for Lee to attack. On the Confederate side, Longstreet once again tried to talk
Lee out of attacking such a strong position. But lee thought the beaten up Union soldiers were nearly done and