This essay Lithosphere has a total of 2462 words and 9 pages.
Notes on the lithosphere- (rock sphere) Upper most part is crust of earth. Compiled of rocks of outer crust. Outermost shell. Upper part- rocks we see at and near the earths surface. Crust is 5 to 10 km thick under most oceans and 24 to 60 km thick under the continents. The lithosphere under the crust is solid, dense material. (more dense than surface materials). Lithosphere 100-200 km. Notes on the aesthenosphere- zone beneath the lithosphere. Thick like tar. Weak because of high teperatures at that depth. Density- 2.7-3.4 to about 12. Notes on the hydrosphere- (Water-bearing) Too small due to the irregularity of upward projection. Density-1.1 Notes on the Atmosphere- only 10 km thick layer of gas which is the basis of human life. Dens. 0.0.
Reactions within- litho to hydro, none besides movement of sand and other free floating particles, absorbtion. Hydro to atmo, evaporation, precipitation, mater, energy, gases, salt, oxygen, carbon dioxide. Litho to atmo, none besides precipitation. Silicon tetrahedron- tetrahedron, a shape of a crystal. If a quartz crystal, (SiO) is broken, then it would shatter. A feldspar (Al,Si,O,Ca,Na) is split, it would evenly cleave. Of all rocks- O=46% Si=28%. Basic structure- 4 oxygen, one Si, i n the shape of a pyramid. Such a foundation is a Si tetrahedron. Silicates are the most common family of minerals. Tetrahedrons- Si + O2= 75% of all. Rocks are classified- by how they are formed. Igneous rocks- are usually not porous. They solidify from a molten state. Are further classified as plutonic (intrusive) and volcanic (extrusive). Volcanic solidify on the earth’s surface. Plutonic solidify below the earth’s surface. Metamorphic rocks solidify (changed form) are se!
dimentary or igneous rocks in which the minerals or texture or both have been changed by high pressures and temperatures without melting. Sedimentary Rocks- are made up of sediment (rock and mineral fragments) carried over the earth’s surfarce mostly by streams and deposited in layers on the ocean floor. Examples include, granite, sandstone. Air masses- Cold Fronts- The Interface at which cold air replaces warm air. Cold Fronts usually come after the warm fronts in such a system. In fact, it is usually followed by rain. Formed by air flowing over the land and ocean that situates in the tropics, continents, oceans. CT, CP, MT, MP Warm fronts- the interface where warm air replaces cold air. Signified by semicircles. salinity- The number of grams of dissolved material in 1000 grams of seawater. Salinity is usually relative to salt. In the ocean, there is approx. 35 grams of salt per thousand. It is developed by the movement of dissolved particles towards a basin of!
water. Sodium and chlorine atoms make up about 85% of all. Ions of just 6 elements make up more than 99% of the ions. Relative amounts: Chlor 55.2%; Sod 30.5; Sulfate 7.7; Magnes 3.7; Calc 1.2; Pot 1.1; All others .7 percent of all ions. Exe. 100 grams seawater, 965 grams water, 35 grams salts. Na + Cl -. Trace elements are extremely small in the development of water. They make up the other one percent of the ions in seawater. Winds are the cheif cause of waves and ocean movements of that type. Each wave has a top, or crest. Each has a bnottom, or trough. Height equals crest minus trough. Crest to crest legnth is wavelegnth. Time between crests is called the period. Period equals wavelegnth divided by period. Over deep water, waves with long wavelegnths travel faster than those with short wavelegnths. Long waves crashing on a beach are usually a sign of an upcoming storm. When the water is deeper than one-half the wave legnth, the water particles move around!
in circles. The diameter equals the wave height. Deeper and deeper, diameters decrease. One half legnth of wave, no detectable motion. Waves break because bottom particles are dragged on floor as upper particles race ahead. The result is a breaking wave. Waves bend at beaches to become parallel because when water is shallower, the waves slow down, thus giving the oblique angled waves a chance to catch up. Currents are caused by winds at the ocean’s surface. The sun is the basic source of energy for ocean currents. It is the wind that turns the sun’s radiant energy into the
Topics Related to Lithosphere
Bodies of water, Oceans, Physical oceanography, Inorganic solvents, Oxides, Sea, Soil, Water, Sedimentary rock, Earth, Desert, Lithosphere
Essays Related to Lithosphere
100 Years of History100 Years of History CURRENT EVENTS: 1945-1996 1945 On April 12 Harry S. Truman became President of the United States of America., In Washington, D.C. On August 6 at 9:15 a.m. US fighter planes dropped an Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima Japan. In Berlin, Germany on April 30, Adolf Hitler was found dead, Hitler committed suicide. 1946 On October 16 in Nurenburg, 9 Nazi war criminals were hanged for the crimes during WW II. On April 25 Big Four Ministers met in Paris to finalize a treaty with Germany, to
The Iranian RevolutionThe Iranian Revolution Iran is a country located in the Middle East. The main source of income for the country is oil, the one object that had greatly influenced its history. Iran\'s present government is run as an Islamic Republic. A president, cabinet, judicial branch, and Majilesor or legislative branch, makes up the governmental positions. A revolution that overthrew the monarch, which was set in 1930, lasted over 15 years. Crane Brinton\'s book, An Anatomy of a Revolution, explains set of f
The History of DinosaursThe History of Dinosaurs The dinosaurs were reptiles that appeared about 230 million years ago. It\'s believed that they had scaly skin and some ate plants and others ate meat. Scientists don\'t know whether or not the dinosaurs were cold blooded, but they think the smaller ones were warm blooded, and the large ones were cold-blooded. In this report you\'ll learn about the earliest dinosaurs, the kinds of dinosaurs, and how the dinosaurs died. There are two main groups of the earliest dinosaurs:
Ancient RomeAncient Rome Roman games were much like Greek games, but there was more physical contact sports such as Gladiator combats, man against beast, and water battles. Chariot races were the same as the Greek chariot races. Rome had many different types of chariots. Biage were chariots pulled by two horses, and quadrigae chariots were pulled by four horses. Each race had 12 chariots going on one track at once. The racers would take 7 laps around the arena which would be a total of 5 miles long. Teams o
AuschwitzAuschwitz Auschwitz began as a barracks camp in the town of Oswiecim, for the polish army in the early 1930\'s. Germany then captured Poland and needed another location for Polish political prisoners. In 1940, the German SS sent a commission to Oswiecim to see if the barracks there could be used. The first inspection reported that it could not be used, however, a later inspection stated that after a few minor changes it would be useable. On May 4, 1940 Rudolf Hoss officially established it as a
The Black PlagueThe Black Plague : From the early fourteenth to late seventeenth century, Europe was decimated by one of the most horrifying pestilence\'s human kind has ever known(Coulton 493). The killer\'s name was later to be recognized by the detrimental consummation it had seized upon a person\'s life. It was known as the Black Plague. This terrible epidemic exhausted small towns across Europe, including the British Isles, brutally killing an incredulous amount of people. The disease had wiped out entire
Narmer's PaletteNarmer\'s Palette As Egypt grew and flourished to a powerful and rich nation, it left behind for today\'s historians, clues and artifacts of a once distinctive, well established and structured society. Proof of this is clearly depicted in king Narmer\'s Palette. This Palette shows historians the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, which signified the beginnings of a civilized era centred around the Nile. The unification of Egypt occurred around 3100 B.C., under the First Dynasty of Menes(3100-
The Ice AgeThe Ice Age Twenty thousand years ago during the time of the last ice age period, many colossal mammals roamed North America. They survived during the times when much of the earth was covered by immense large bodies of ice that buried forests, fields, and mountains, but rapidly became extinct after the ice began to retreat and melt. Since then the human race has introduced many different theories to explain the extinction of these large mammals. One theory stands above all and explains the truth
LORD OF THE FLIES VOCABULARY LORD OF THE FLIES VOCABULARY Synonyms/Antonyms One of the major themes of Lord of the Flies is evil. In the novel, evil involves fear, hatred, and ugliness. The following words, taken from the novel reflect that theme of evil. Each underlined word below is followed by a definition, a synonym, and a page (p.) and line (l.) number. Read the definition and the synonym, then refer in the novel to the page and line on which the word appears. Read the definition and the synonym, then refer in the nov
UFOs and Aliens on EarthUFOs and Aliens on Earth If you had mentioned seeing a Unidentified Flying Object (UFO), or spaceship from another planet 100 years ago, you would probably be thought of as a raving lunatic. If you had mentioned one 50 years ago, the case would be thought about, but with much suspicion. Today, many people would believe you, and, if you had evidence to prove it, the government would take a very close interest in your case, yet many people would call you an idiot. Despite all the evidence that ind
Samwise Gamgee Samwise Gamgee What exactly is a rain forest, you say? Well, on the outside, a rain forest has a wall averaging 20 feet thick that is made of a tangle of vines that love light. This wall seals off the interior creating the illusion that the whole jungle is this thick. But if you find an animal path or stream to follow, you can slip through and enter this mysterious world. Once you\'re inside, you can look up and see a tree canopy that\'s as high as a 17 story building! And it\'s pretty dark too
Death for Your CountryDeath for Your Country Is it glorious to die for your country?.... This question has been posed to many young people about to embark on war although the answer has usually been \'yes\' in response to their country due mainly to the fact that the government instills it in the people of the country to support one\'s country and one way is to send young abled bodied men into the army. If you were one individual that was not in favour of fighting for your country you would surely become an outcast b
Pornography in the MediaPornography in the Media It started by way of messengers and scribes, evolved through the presentation of newspapers and radio, brought us together with television, and now serves us world-wide via the ever-popular Internet. It is the mass media, and even from the earliest days of its existence, it has contributed greatly in ways that both enlighten and enrich society, and ways that deteriorate and perplex it. It is not a surprise to learn, then, that the mass media is the most powerful source o
Comparative PoliticsComparative Politics Comparative Politics, typically defined as the study of the internal politics of nations other than our own, is a diverse and complex field. There is no one central tendency or approach which dominates this area of inquiry within political science: various theories, concepts, issues and methodologies are evident in the field. While it is recognized that no simple classification can be made of the literature, we are encouraged to be aware of contrasting approaches, and to eng
Old Testament Old Testament The Old Testament is a compilation, and like every compilation it has a wide variety of contributors who, in turn, have their individual influence upon the final work. It is no surprise, then, that there exist certain parallels between the Enuma Elish, the cosmogony of the Babylonians, and the Book of Genesis, the first part of the Pentateuch section of the Bible. In fact, arguments may be made that other Near Eastern texts, particularly Sumerian, have had their influences in Bibl
I am your usual plant cell. There are trillions ofI am your usual plant cell. There are trillions of my kind on all plants, grass, and trees. My breed ranges from ten to a hundred micrometers. I am approximately twenty micrometers since I dwell in grass. My organelles stretch out to one to ten micrometers. If you are asking what I really do and how I live, I am going to answer them in this paper. First off, any cells requires a structure, metabolism, energy, nutrients, waste, and communication. I am more complex than most other cells. Bacteria
Group1 1Group1 1 OUR FOOD SYSTEM After a long hard day of work you sit down in your comfortable recliner and open up your favorite snack. But when you reach into grab a piece, you pull out a dead bug. Suddenly many thoughts come into your mind, you wonder how did the bug get there and was it dead or alive. Is it harmful or carry a disease. You ask yourself did the bug come from the United States or another country and where was your snack made? As all these questions come into your head, you wonder who
Bacteria are often maligned as the causes of humanBacteria are often maligned as the causes of human and animal disease (like this one, Leptospira, which causes serious disease in livestock). However, certain bacteria, the actinomycetes, produce antibiotics such as streptomycin and nocardicin; others live symbiotically in the guts of animals (including humans) or elsewhere in their bodies, or on the roots of certain plants, converting nitrogen into a usable form. Bacteria put the tang in yogurt and the sour in sourdough bread; bacteria help to
To What Extent Does Acid Precipitation Affect AnneTo What Extent Does Acid Precipitation Affect Annelids? In order to truly understand acid rain and it\'s eventual effect on earthworms, it would be best to look at the causes of acid rain. How and why does altered acidity in precipitation have a devastating effect? Acid rain is charecterized as Precipitation that has a pH lower than about 5.0 (Allaby, Michael (1994) Ecology, Oxford Press,). Acid rain is created by many things, of which pollution from cars contributes the most. Ever since the I
Acid RainAcid Rain INTRODUCTION: Acid rain is a great problem in our world. It causes fish and plants to die in our waters. As well it causes harm to our own race as well, because we eat these fish, drink this water and eat these plants. It is a problem that we must all face together and try to get rid of. However acid rain on it\'s own is not the biggest problem. It cause many other problems such as aluminum poisoning. Acid Rain is deadly. WHAT IS ACID RAIN? Acid rain is all the rain, snow, mist etc tha
ChallengerChallenger It was a cold, crisp, and damp morning on the Florida Space Coast as the space shuttle Challenger raced through the sky at speeds approaching mach 2 at an altitude of 104,000 feet when something went perilously wrong. All of America watched, including the family members of the seven doomed crew members, as Challenger exploded into an expansive ball of fire, smoke and steam. An Oh. . . no! came as the crew’s final utterance from the shuttle as the orbiter broke-up. As the reality of
ClimateClimate In order to investigate the effects of geography on climate, I selected two cities, both on the same continent, both at approximately the same latitude, and both on major bodies of water. I compared the monthly temperature and precipitation averages of New York City with the monthly temperature and precipitation averages of San Francisco. I also recorded the daily temperatures of the two cities over the course of three months. What I found is reflected in this report. New York City and S
Nutritional FactsNutritional Facts The first nutritional fact most Americans learn is that iron builds strong and healthy bodies.1 The beef lobby, cereal manufacturers, bread makers, and drug companies have bombarded the public with iron being the cure-all for fatigue and iron-poor blood. People have been mislead by drug companies pushing iron supplements and by old-fashioned ideas about iron, the magical nutrient of strength. Even the cartoons of the past pushed iron as the secret ingredient in Popeye\'s sp
The Ecology of a Rain ForestThe Ecology of a Rain Forest In 1980, the estimated amount of rain forests in the world was 40,000 square miles. This number decreases each year by roughly 1,000 square miles due to construction and the resources being used for profit. It is too bad, because the rain forest is one of the most beautiful places on earth. It is the most diverse, containing the most species of living things, much more than anywhere else, and most have yet to be identified. All rain forests are located on earth\'s g
Plants Plants Life science 7th grade Jr high Chapter 1 Plants are the basis of the food pyramid for all living things, even other plants. They have always been very important to people, not only for food, but also for clothing, weapons, tools, dyes, medicines, shelter and a great many other purposes. Both humans and animals benefit from plants. We eat many different types of plants such as fruits and vegetables. We also use plants for our herbs. Plants are also used to manufacture many different produ
The Spectacled BearThe Spectacled Bear The Spectacled Bear, or Tremarctos Ornatus, is an endangered species. This rare bear can only be found in a few elusive spots in the world. Many endangered species all over the world don’t deserve the respect and care that they need. That is why many endangered species often become extinct or remain on the endangered species list for the remainder of their survival on Earth. Today, as more species become endangered, more people become involved in their care. Many things are b
UFOsUFOs UFOs: “What are they?” In the past fifty years, UFO sightings have shot up in numbers. Now that there are enough witnesses, we can try to find out what or who these UFOs really are. When asked about the incidents, the government would make something up for an explanation instead of telling the truth. It’s up to people like you and me to find out what really happened. The number of sightings of UFOs in the United States alone is phenomenal. Even though it has been determined that many photog
Greenpeace HistoryGreenpeace History The year 1996 is a year of celebration for greenpeace. They are celebrating their 25th year anniversary. Everything startde in 1969; Members were part of the ‘’Don’t make a wave’’ committee in vancouver. This committee was founded by Jim Bohlen. He was a forty-three year old American and was a composite-materials researcher. Another founder of the committee was Irving Stowe; he was a Philadelphia lawyer. A jew who had joined the Quaker religion. Paul Cote, a canadian lawyer in
The Roswell CoverupThe Roswell Coverup You feel the blazing desert sun of Corona, New Mexico beating down on your already weary body. All of a sudden it starts to rain. The cool water refreshes you. Out of the corner of your eye you see a saucer shaped flying disc in the distance. You have heard of hundreds of these sightings all over the country. You gaze in awe because you have now beheld the breathtaking beauty that these discs possess. The saucer you realize is coming directly toward you at a tremendous speed.
Nazism and World War IINazism and World War II The National Socialist German Workers’ Party almost died one morning in 1919. It numbered only a few dozen grumblers’ it had no organization and no political ideas. But many among the middle class admired the Nazis’ muscular opposition to the Social Democrats. And the Nazis themes of patriotism and militarism drew highly emotional responses from people who could not forget Germany’s prewar imperial grandeur. In the national elections of September 1930, the Nazis garnered
California, Gurse Books, 1983California, Gurse Books, 1983 The book I read was about the hard difficult task of overcoming this terrible eating disorder known as Bulimia. It is a secret addiction that dominates thoughts, severely undercuts self esteem, and threatens lives. Bulimia is a food obsession characterized by repeated overeating binges followed by purges of forced vomiting, prolonged fasting, and/or abusive laxatives, enemas and diuretics. A typical binge/purge cycle, who and why people become involved with bulimia,