Ricky Medina
Intro. to Biology
Report # 3


Twenty-six Israeli suicidal patients, twenty-four non-suicidal patients

and twenty-four control aptients completed tests on different suicidal

tendencies. Suicidal adolescents showed more negative responses that did

either the non-suicidal adolescents or the control patients. Furthermore

compared to the other two groups, the suicidal adolescents showed less

complex self-attributes and a higher tendency to have a low self-esteem.

Results were discussed and it was found that suicidal adolescents were

unevenly processing information or stimuli which was causing confusion

which led to their suicidal tendencies.


Orbach, Isreal, Mario Mikulineer, Daniel Stein, and Orit Cohen, Self-representation of Suicidal Adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 1996. Vol. No.3 435-439.Ricky Medina
Intro. to Biology
Report # 4


Researchers used multiple measures of irrationability and compared

the reactions of never-depressed controls (ND) with people who had

recovered from major depression. The ND studies revealed that they didn't

exceed in errationality and negative mood in specific situations. The people

who were recovered from depression did show that when there were other

variables their attitude did change faster than those who had never suffered

from depression. They concluded that recovered depressed people weren't

able to handle being under different situations when they had to control there

rational way of life.


Brody, Cindy, David A.F. Haaga, Ari Solomon, Lindsey Kirk, and Dara G. Friedman 1998. Priming Irational Beliefs in Recovered-Depressed People. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Vol. No.3 440-449Ricky Medina
Intro. to Biology
Report # 5


In 1989, the National Institute of mental health (NIMH) completed the

most careful study comparing the success rates of psychotherapy versus

antidepressant drug therapy in the treatment of cases of major depression.

Patients with major depression were assigned a random for 16 weeks to one

of four treatments: an antidepressant drug which was imipramine, a placebo

pill, interpersonal therapy, of cognitive behavioral therapy. The

interpersonal therapy focused on the depressed persons relationships with

other people. The findings of the study were surprising. For the less

depressed people all four treatments were equally successful. For the

Severely depressed people however, the antidepressant drug therapy was

highly success ful. 76% improved on the drug nad only 18% on the placebo.

After this study NIMH issued a warning it concluded that only 16 weeks of

psychotherapy or the drug therapy for depression was sufficient since it

resulted in very high relapse rates.


Mackel, Donald, William Holder, and Larry Kvols. Psychotherapy or Pharmcotherapy? Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Vol.5. No. 6, 489-495




























Mackel, Donald, William Holder, and Larry Kvois, Psychotherapy or Pharmacotherapy? Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Vol. No.6 489-495.Ricky Medina
Intro. to Biology
report #2


3,450 patients who were diagnosed with either depression, anxiety, or

stress syndromes completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS).

3 to 8 years later the same patients took the DASS again. Each time the

second test scores were the asme as the test scores from the first test. The

stability of the patients suffering from at least one of the three syndromes did

not vary over the interval of the two test. The results support the stability of

depression, anxiety and stress, and draw attention to the distinction between

the three different syndromes. These results were interpreted to mean that

there is existence of vulnerabilities in the three syndromes, over and beyond

the general vulnerability to emotional distress.


Lovebond, Peter F. Long-Term Stability of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Syndromes, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1998, Vol. 107, No. 3, 520-526